Chapter 1: Getting Began, CryptoTokens

by KLmoney @klmoney8

Contents

Introduction

Versions of the Wallet App are available for Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows. For the Wallet App to work, it will need to connect with a running, fully synced Ethereum knot. The Mac, Linux 64Bit and Windows 64Bit versions come with a bundled Ethereum knot, the Golang implementation called Geth. Spil this user guide is targeted at non-technical users who will not want to separately install a Geth knot, only thesis versions with the bundled knot are covered te this guide.

Note: The Mac OS X and Win 64Bit versions also include Eth, the C++ Ethereum client. However, only Geth is covered here.

The treatment taken ter the vormgeving of Beta 7 means that what you see the very first time you run the app will be very different depending on whether you are upgrading from a previous version, or you are doing a fresh installation . If you are doing a first-time, fresh installation, proceed with the next section. If you are upgrading from an earlier version of the Wallet App, or if you have everzwijn run a standalone, standard installation of Geth, hop to this section.

What is an Account?

Before proceeding to the installation zindelijk, wij very first need to become acquainted with Ethereum’s Accounts. Accounts are a central component of the Ethereum protocol playing a role ter every transaction and contract. Ter Ethereum, there are two types of Accounts: Externally Wielded Accounts and Contract Accounts . Wij will encounter Contract Accounts te Chapter Two. Primarily, we’ll work only with Externally Wielded Accounts, which wij will refer to simply spil Accounts via this guide.

First-Time Installation of the Ethereum-Mist Wallet App

Downloading the Wallet App involves syncing a utter copy of the Ethereum blockchain on your rekentuig, requiring originally about one GB of disk space spil of mid-February 2016. The disk space requirement will of course grow with time and the number just quoted is for an initial installation from scrape (swift sync technology). For an average pc with an average broadband connection, be ready to wait about two hours (hopefully ) for the initial syncing process to finish.

To do a first-time installation of the Wallet App:

  1. Select the version you require from the available options on this pagina .

For this example, I select: Ethereum-Wallet-win64-0-4-0.zip

  • After the folder has fully downloaded, right-click on the compressed (zipped) folder and select Samenvatting All.
  • Look inwards the unzipped folder for the Ethereum-Wallet application/program opstopping. (Ethereum-Wallet.exe for Windows) and double-click it.

    Problems Downloading the Blockchain?

    If there is any suggestion that your knot has indeed stopped syncing, for example, you see zero peers and the block number is not switching, attempt restarting the app. (Ter fact, if you encounter any unexpected behavior via the use of this app, the very first remedy to attempt is restarting, and just keep your fingers crossed.)

    You will see the following screen asking if you want to invoer your Presale Wallet verkeersopstopping.

    Don’t do anything yet, and just click on SKIP.

    You will be able to use this feature at any time after you get convenient with the app.

    This screen will help you create your very first Account. Ter fact, you have to create an Account to proceed.

    Significant : Do not leave behind this password. You will not be able to access this Account, including any ether you send to it, without the password. This applies to all Accounts, you vereiste know the password of the Account before you use it to receive ether.

    You will see the following screen. Again, don’t do anything for now.

    You can lightly access this feature at any time.

    You will see this screen:

    Now every time you restart the Wallet App, you will go straight to the Accounts Overview opening screen, bypassing all the “onboarding” and tutorial screens.

    Note that every time you zekering and restart the Wallet App, you will have to wait a little spil your knot downloads and processes the latest blocks and becomes fully synced again.

    Significant Note: There is a very significant section on passwords, private keys and backup straks te this chapter. Please be sure to read it before you begin working with any ether.

    Since you have ended a fresh installation, skip the next section which is for users upgrading to Beta 7 from a previous version of the Wallet App.

    Upgrading From a Previous Version

    This section is intended for users upgrading from a previous version of the Wallet App.

    To upgrade from a previous version:

    1. Select the version you require from the available options on this pagina .

    For this example, I select: Ethereum-Wallet-win64-0-4-0.zip

  • After the folder has fully downloaded, right-click on the compressed (zipped) folder and select Samenvatting All.
  • Look inwards the unzipped folder for the Ethereum-Wallet application/program opstopping. (Ethereum-Wallet.exe for Windows) and double-click it.

    You should then see the following window spil your Wallet App’s knot syncs up with the network:

    If you have just upgraded from Beta 6, you will find little that is different from that version except for the Presale Wallet invoer feature described here.

    Is Your Knot Fully Synced With the Network?

    Most Wallet App operations will fail if your knot is not fully synced, that is, if your copy of the blockchain is not up-to-date with the network.

    To check that your copy of the blockchain is up-to-date:

    • Towards the top of the Accounts Overview screen you will see information relating to the sync status of your knot. To check that all is well and that you have the latest block, compare this information with what you see te the Network Stats pagina .

    How the Term “Wallet” Is Used te This Guide

    Consistent usage of terms is something newcomers appreciate spil it makes the learning process so much lighter.

    The term “wallet” can mean different things depending on the setting te which it is used. People with a general understanding of Bitcoin will know that “wallet” can refer to a single private key/address pair, spil te a Paper Wallet. It can also mean the app ter your mobile that manages your coins. Frankly, it gets a little worse with Ethereum.

    Ter this guide, the term “wallet” will always be used ter a general/generic sense, to mean anything that can hold ether (or other crypto tokens). So, when I say wallet (or Wallet or WALLET), I can be referring to any or all of the following: Paper Wallet, Presale Wallet, a Wallet App, Multisig Wallet, etc. If I mean a specific type of wallet, then I will refer to it by its specific name, like Presale Wallet or Wallet App, for example.

    Switching an Account’s Name

    The very first Account you create will by default be named Etherbase. Switching the name of any Account is effortless.

    To switch an Account’s name:

    1. Ter the Accounts Overview screen, click on the Account. The Specific Wallet pagina will display:

    Copying Your Account’s Address

    It will be useful to copy and paste your Account’s address into a text opstopping for effortless access.

    1. Ter the Accounts Overview screen, click on the Account.
    2. Click the Copy Address icon and paste the address into a document.

    Ethereum addresses are te hexadecimal format. They are made up of 40 characters (hexadecimal digits). Additionally, the address may or may not be prefixed with the hexadecimal notation “0x” (zero x). It is generally safer to use the 0x prefix.

    An Ethereum address with the “0x” prefix.

    Creating a 2nd Account

    You will need a 2nd Account to go after the exercise straks ter this chapter. You created your very first Account, Etherbase, during the installation process.

    Note: Regardless of whether you have any ether, work through the following steps. (You will be shown how you can acquire some ether, if you need to, ter a zometeen section.)

    To create an Account:

    • Click on ADD ACCOUNT ter the Accounts Overview screen.

    You will be asked to come in a password and then repeat that password.

    Notice that this 2nd Account is named Account Two.

    Note: Some users have reported an kwestie where the Account does not create. Restarting the Wallet App should solve the problem.

    Your shiny fresh Ethereum addresses can be tracked ter an Ethereum blockchain explorer like etherscan.io , etherchain.org or live.ether.camp . (Note: It is possible that your Block Explorer may not recognize an address until it is very first funded with some ether from another Account.)

    Creating Accounts is free, a little zonderling generosity from the Ethereum protocol :). Most other operations will cost you ether, spil you will soon detect. Free or not, I’m sure you appreciate the perils of bouncing too many Accounts/wallets.

    Don’t You Just Love Those Identicons

    Identicons are not original to this app of course, but the implementation here looks and works good. Each Identicon provides a unique pictorial representation of a unique address.

    Identicons are not included just for cosmetic reasons. If you are familiar with the identicons of the addresses you work with, then they can help flag an incorrect address entry, the identicon you see will just not match the one you expect. Also, if you type or paste te an address that does not overeenkomstig to the address format, say you miss out the last character, you will be given ample warning:

    Warning: To reduce the chances of coming in an incorrect address, it is always best to copy and paste addresses. And check cautiously! Ethereum addresses do not have a checksum like Bitcoin addresses.

    Private Key, Password, Backup

    Introduction

    Every Account like the one you just created, is defined by a pair of keys, a private key and an address (or public key). Every private key/address pair exists spil a single keyfile. Keyfiles are found te the keystore subdirectory of your Ethereum node’s gegevens directory. But where is this all-important gegevens directory? (Incidentally, it is a hidden directory by default.)

    If you are running the Windows version of the Wallet App, the node’s gegevens directory is located at:

    Linux and Mac users will find the Ethereum node’s gegevens directory ter the following locations:

    Note that the Library, .ethereum and %appdata% directories te Mac, Linux and Windows respectively are all hidden directories. Use whatever method is suitable for your OS to unhide or search for the contents of thesis hidden directories.

    You should see something like this:

    Inwards the keystore subdirectory, you will find one keyfile for each of the Accounts you have created.

    Backup &, Restore

    You vereiste have an Account’s keyfile to be able to send any transaction from that Account. Ter other words, if you delete your keyfile and do not have access to a backup copy, any ether you have stored with that Account is lost forever .

    To backup your keyfiles (Accounts):

    • Copy either the individual keyfiles within the keystore subdirectory or copy the entire keystore folder. You can get directly to the keystore subdirectory by selecting the Backup spijskaart ter the Spijskaart buffet, and selecting Backup Accounts.

    If you are not going to be using an Account any time soon, that is, you are not going to be sending any transactions from that Account, you may want to backup its keyfile and then delete the keyfile from the keystore subdirectory ter your rekentuig. Make sure you have a good backup before deleting anything.

    To restore your keyfiles:

    • Copy the keyfiles back into the keystore subdirectory, where they were originally.

    It may be a good idea to test your backup and restore proces with a petite amount of ether very first, before you send the mother flow ter.

    Password

    Each keyfile is a JSON text verkeersopstopping which you can open and view te any text editor. The critical component of the keyfile is your Account’s private key. Importantly, this private key is always encrypted, and it is encrypted with the password you entered when you created the Account. So now you know what that password entry wasgoed all about! Hopefully you are te the habit of using strong passwords.

    This is Significant: Accessing an Account

    For anyone (you, a thief) to send transactions from an Account, including sending ether of course, they voorwaarde have BOTH the keyfile and the password. So be absolutely sure to have a copy of your keyfile AND reminisce the password for that keyfile, and store them both spil securely spil possible . There are no escape routes here, lose the keyfile or leave behind your password and all your ether is gone.

    If You Already Own Some Ether

    What you do next will depend on whether you have any ether. And if you do have some ether, then how that ether is presently held, is it te a Presale Wallet, at an exchange, or ter cold storage. If you do not yet own any ether, skip to the section that shows you how to get some.

    Getting Your Ether to Showcase up te the Wallet App

    Before you can begin using the Wallet App to send your ether around, you will have to very first build up access to that ether. To build up access, your ether should be te an Account that is displayed te the Wallet App. Under the rubber hood, this means that the Wallet App has access to the encrypted keyfile that controls that Account.

    If Your Ether Is Held at an Exchange Like Openbreken or Poloniex

    This may be ether (ETH) recently bought at the exchange using bitcoin (BTC). Or, it may be ether from your Presale Wallet that wasgoed deposited into the exchange using the exchange’s Presale Wallet invoer device.

    To withdraw ether from an exchange:

    • Just use the address of the very first Account you created spil the withdrawal address. By default this address should be named Etherbase.

    Once the withdrawal has ended, you will see the withdrawn ether te your Etherbase Account the next time you begin the Wallet App. (Note: Do not be worried that you do not see the transaction listed under LATEST TRANSACTIONS. This is explained straks.)

    If Your Ether Is Still Stored with Your Presale Wallet

    This version of the Wallet App (Beta 7) is the very first to come with an effortless Presale Wallet invoer feature.

    To invoer your Presale Wallet Account:

    1. Te the app’s menukaart folder, select the Accounts menukaart and then select the only option there: Invoer Pre-sale Accounts.
    2. Ter the following window haul and druppel your .json verkeersopstopping into the designated area and then inject your password.

    If You Have Moved Your Ether Offline into Cold Storage

    Some of the ways ter which users could presently be doing cold storage :

    How to get your cold storage wallet into the Wallet App

    1. If you have copied the keyfile and stored it on some removable media, then it is just a case of copying this keyfile back into the keystore subdirectory ter the gegevens directory being accessed by the Wallet App.
    2. If you have printed the contents of the keyfile on paper, then you have to retype and create a fresh keyfile using a text editor and save it with the suitable filename. Then copy that fresh opstopping into the keystore subdirectory ter the gegevens directory. Geth keyfiles voorwaarde be named according to a immobile format, which should become apparent once you examine a few filenames, otherwise you will not be able to unlock the key with the password. ( The UTC time and date need not be accurate, however this will affect the numbering of the Account if you have more than one.)
    3. If you have created an unencrypted Paper Wallet, with or without QR codes, using one of the available Paper Wallet creators, then use the following proces:

    To invoer an Account from a Paper Wallet:

    1. Using your dearest text editor, save your unencrypted private key string spil a plain text verkeersopstopping and name the verkeersopstopping, say, key12345.txt
    2. If on Linux with a separately installed Geth knot:

    Open a fresh terminal and inject the following:

    geth account invoer /path/to/key12345.txt

    If on Linux and using the bundled Geth knot:

    The bundled knot should be te Ethereum-Wallet-linux-x64-0-4-0/resources/knot/geth for the latest Waas wallet. Running the following from within the geth directory imports the wallet:

    ./geth account invoer /path/to/key12345.txt If on Windows and using the bundled Geth knot:

    Search for the geth directory and open a Instruction window. Ter Win 7 your Directive window should look like the following assuming key12345.txt is ter the same directory spil geth.exe.

    Caution : Your fresh keyfile/Account will now be encrypted with this password. You vereiste recall the password to unlock the Account and spend from it.

  • The address of the imported Account will be displayed. Ensure that it is the same spil the address on your Paper Wallet.
  • Because you did not specify a gegevens directory with the geth account invoer directive (Step Two), the freshly created keyfile will show up te the default gegevens directory.

    You should now see the Paper Wallet Account with the onberispelijk balance displayed ter your Wallet App.

    If You Presently Do Not Own Any Ether

    With early versions of this app, the ideal option wasgoed to acquire some ether from a friend. But with Beta 6 and beyond, your friend has some competition, te the form of ShapeShift.io.

    Te case you’re not familiar with ShapeShift: The service provided by ShapeShift makes it possible to instantaneously and conveniently exchange bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies for ether, no registration required! This service is now available right within the Wallet App, making it lighter than everzwijn to get some ether and get commenced.

    No friends with ether, don’t want to use ShapeShift? Then there is always the traditional route of going through an exchange like Poloniex or Losbreken where you can exchange bitcoin (BTC) for ether (ETH). (While ShapeShift is excellent for acquiring smaller amounts of ether, for larger amounts going through an exchange should be cheaper.)

    To get ether from a friend:

    • If you are getting ether from a friend, send him/hier your Etherbase Account address. Then monitor your Etherbase Account balance ter the Wallet App to confirm that the ether has bot sent.

    Once your friend has executed the send transaction, the ether should emerge ter your Account te a matter of seconds or a few minutes at most. (Do not be worried that you do not see the transaction listed under LATEST TRANSACTIONS. This is explained straks.)

    To get ether using the integrated ShapeShift service:

    1. Ter the Accounts Overview screen select the Account (or Contract Wallet, which you will learn about te Chapter Two) into which you want to deposit the ether.
    2. Ter the Specific Wallet pagina, select the “Deposit Using Bitcoin” icon. You should see a window like the following:

    Your address which will receive the ether is prominently displayed.

    Once the exchange is finished, usually within a minute or so, you will see a screen like the following:

    Sending Ether to Another Account

    Now that you are ter possession of some ether and that ether is te an Account that is displayed te your Wallet App, you can proceed to proefneming with the Send function.

    To send ether inbetween Accounts that are ter your Wallet App:

    1. Select the receiving Account ter the Accounts Overview screen.
    2. Ter the Specific Wallet pagina for that Account, click on the Deposit icon.

    The Send Funds pagina will display.

  • Check that the FROM Account is onberispelijk. If not, click on the FROM field and select the desired Account from the drop-down list.
  • At the top-right of the Send Funds pagina, you can select the unit ter which you want to specify the amount. Te this example Finney is selected. The text below the AMOUNT field will display the amount you are sending te ether. Always confirm this value is juist before sending.

  • Select the SEND button at the bottom of the pagina.
  • You will see the Send Transaction opbergruimte.

  • Inject the password for the sending Account spil requested and select Send Transaction.
  • You can send ether to any Account, including those not te your own Wallet App of course. All you need to execute a successful Send transaction is the receiving address.

    To send ether to any Account:

    1. Ensure that the address of the receiving Account is readily available. For example, have the address te a text document so you can lightly copy and paste when required.
    2. Te the Accounts Overview screen, select the Account you want to send from.
    3. Ter the Specific Wallet pagina, select the Send icon.
    4. Te the Send Funds pagina, paste the receiving address into the TO address field.
    5. Pack ter the AMOUNT field and click SEND.
    6. Come in the password for the sending Account spil requested and select Send Transaction.

    Transaction Toverfee

    You will incur a cost when you execute a transaction ter Ethereum. Gas is the unit te which transaction cost is denoted. When you do a plain ether transfer from one Account to another Account, the transaction cost is 21,000 gas. You pay for gas with ether. The cost te ether of one unit of gas is determined dynamically by the Ethereum network. This gas price can be viewed te the Network Stats pagina. Ter January of 2016, 1 unit of gas cost 0.00000005 ether. So a 21,000 gas transaction like the ether transfer you just did, would cost 0.00105 ether (or 1.05 Finney). For a slightly more elaborate explanation, refer to this postbode.

    Different types of transactions will incur different gas costs. The Wallet App will estimate the cost of the transaction you are about to execute. Any excess toverfee te that estimate will be refunded to your sending Account instantaneously upon execution.

    Transaction List

    If you have worked through this chapter, you should have at least one entry under LATEST TRANSACTIONS. The thing is, you may have expected more than one transaction to be listed if you have received ether from a friend, or an exchange or ShapeShift. This is where the following note ter the Wallet App comes ter: “Accounts… can’t display incoming transactions“.

    You will learn about wallets that CAN list incoming transactions ter the next chapter. For now, be aware that the transaction list will not demonstrate transactions ter which any of your Accounts has received ether from a wallet that’s not ter your Wallet App. The balance of your receiving Account will of course be updated and displayed correctly even tho’ the transaction is not listed.

    To see the details of a transaction:

    1. Click on the particular transaction to display the Transaction opbergruimte.

    The value of the ether transferred with each transaction can be displayed te any of the following units: ETHER, FINNEY, BTC, USD, EUR. Select the desired unit by clicking on the unit selector at the top right of the Wallet App screen. Notice that the value spil displayed te the transaction list is the historical value, that is, the value at the time of the transfer and not the current value. A nice feature made possible by using price gegevens provided by cryptocompare.com.

    The Filterzakje Transactions field emerges to take spil input any hexadecimal digit (0123456789abcdef) plus x, that is any character te an address including the hex notation prefix. So you can filterzakje listed transactions by address and even value or date but not names.

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